The Imperial German Navy
– sketches of life on board ship 1902
Some time ago I stumbled on German publication of 1902 entitled “Germany’s Honour on the World’s Oceans” (Deutschlands Ehr im Weltenmeer) by a Vice-Admiral von Werner. The sub-title is “The development of the German Navy and sketches of life on board.” The illustrations, not less than the text, are fascinating and they’re worth recording below.
The timing of the book is significant – the German Navy was just starting the expansion which in just over a decade was to bring it from second-class status to the second most powerful one in th world. Enthusiasm for the Navy and naval affairs was high and was fostered by the government, Kaiser Wilhelm II seeing naval strength as essential for his personal prestige no less than for the nation. This is reflected in the book’s frontispiece – see above – in which the ridiculously mustachioed kaiser is seen inspecting naval personnel. Prior to this time the German Empire, building on traditions of the Prussian military, and its crushing defeat of France in 1870, had been primarily a land power with only a limited naval tradition. This was to change and the book seems to be part of the shift in cultural mindset. It is notable that it is printed in German Gothic font which is quite difficult to read at first (I hadn’t read in it for almost 50 years!), but which one gets quickly used to.
Painting entitled “Squadron at Sea”
Leading ship is a reconstructed central-battery ironclad of the 1874 “Kaiser” class
Much of book’s focus is on presenting life in the navy as attractive for young men either as officers or seamen. The text is illustrated not just by photographs of ships, but with drawings – many not just idealised, but indeed sentimentalised – of life on board. There are some very attractive stylised capital letters at the start of each chapter, all incorporating a sketch. I have scanned many of the illustrations and have included them below. They tell as much about aspiration as about reality and as such give a unique insight to the thinking of the time.
Fun in the gunroom – cadets enjoying themselves on board a training vessel
Boy recruits for the lower deck scrubbing – not too clear what! Clothing or stools?
A nap on deck for an exhausted recruit- hard to imagine this lasting for long!
Note blackened soles of feet!
Instruction by an older seaman
Sunday religious service conducted by a Lutheran chaplain
Young sailors dancing hornpipes – not sure if doing so voluntarily or under orders!
Catching a shark – presumably not an everyday occurrence!
Christmas overseas – note tropical uniforms and tree in background
The training ship SMS Nixe of 1883 was described in “Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships 1860-1905” as “a hopeless anachronism, with her full rig and wood and copper-sheathed bottom, but useful as a school ship, though a bad seaboat and awkward under sail” She served in this capacity to 1901.
Training ship SMS Gneisenau (of Bismarck class of iron flush-decked corvettes), commissioned 1880 but wrecked in Malaga harbour, Spain, during a storm in 1900. The captain and forty others died.
Cruisers SMS Hertha and Hela in company